Game theory studies the behavior of individuals in situations of antagonism, and seeks to identify optimal strategies. Seemingly very different situations can sometimes be represented with similar incentive structures constituting all examples of the same game. Game theory is becoming an important branch of mathematics that from the year 1940, especially after the publication in 1944 of the Theory of games and economic behavior (Theory of Games and Economic Behavior) by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern .
These theories can be applied in many fields such diverse and varied as economics, sociology, politics In fact, game theory was an important tool in many events in history such as:
•the Cuban missile crisis ;
•the political constitution of convoys of ships in wartime;
•how to manage a surprise attack policy ( Nasser at Suez , de Gaulle in Quebec , Yeltsin during the coup, election advertisements ) or marketing;
•the fight against terrorism .
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